This handbook provides an overview of the obligations contained in international investment treaties and the risks that governments face in the event its officials violate those obligations. The approach of the handbook is practical, addressing key concepts through a question and answer format and the provision of practical examples. There is also a checklist for decision-making to assist in giving these concepts meaning in the day-to-day work of government. This handbook is intended to provide information to government officials at all levels and in all branches (executive, legislative, judicial) that will help them avoid violating international investment obligations and potentially triggering an international investment dispute. It is not a substitute for specialised legal advice.