Implementing Inclusion: APEC Case Studies on Inclusive Policies

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Implementing Inclusion: APEC Case Studies on Inclusive Policies

Publication Number


Published Date

November 2020

Type of Publication


Publications Under

APEC Secretariat, APEC Policy Support Unit





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The APEC region has achieved rapid economic growth and poverty reduction over the past 30 years, thanks in part to efforts and policy commitments achieved through APEC. However, inequality in the region in terms of income gaps have been growing and persistent. While the region has been highly successful in growing the economic pie, it has not achieved the same success in distributing the pie equitably. Drawing on economic literature and case studies from eight economies, this report discusses inclusion in the context of APEC: what it means, how economies have implemented it, and where it fits into APEC’s work. It recommends operationalising APEC Leaders’ mandates on inclusion, facilitating cross-fora collaboration, and mainstreaming inclusion in APEC projects and discussions.

Individual Files

  • Annex - Case Studies by Key Contributing Economies Download