1. We, the Energy Ministers of member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, met in Beijing, People’s Republic of China on 2 September 2014, under the theme of “Joining Hands Toward Sustainable Energy Development in the Asia-Pacific Region.”
2. We note the profound changes in the world’s energy supply and demand pattern. On one hand, there is a trend toward diversified energy supply centers across the world. On the other hand, global energy demand continues to rise steadily. The Asia-Pacific assumes a more prominent role as the center of world energy demand. At the same time, political environment and economic situation, fluctuations in the energy market, climate change, and public perception and acceptance exert huge impacts on energy policy making in the Asia-Pacific. Moreover, energy costs are crucial to the competitiveness of energy intensive industries in the region.
3. Diversified energy supply and stable demand, safe energy transportation routes, innovation in energy technologies and effective forums to discuss energy policy are vital for energy security and sustainable development in this region. Sustainable development presents enormous challenges as well as new opportunities for the APEC economies. We commit to continue enhancing the principles of the Energy Security Initiative (ESI) signed by Leaders of APEC Member economies in 2001 in Shanghai and fully recognize that in the face of new realities and challenges, member economies should work in the spirit of cooperation to achieve mutually beneficial and win-win outcomes, to champion an Asia-Pacific concept of energy security featuring openness, inclusiveness, cooperation and sustainability, and encourage economies to work together toward energy security goals.
4. We commit to strengthening cooperation in the exploration, development and integrated utilization of oil and natural gas, to promoting diversified energy supplies, to market-based competition and pricing mechanisms that reflect demand and supply fundamentals as appropriate to each economy. We support the development of conventional and non-conventional oil and gas resources, the enhancement of the energy supply capacity of the region, and the pursuit of scientific solutions to environmental issues as they arise in non-conventional oil and gas development. Meanwhile, we commit to gradually raising the emergency response capability of oil and gas supply, to ensure oil and gas security and stable supply in the region.
5. We take special note that the Asia-Pacific natural gas market will develop and mature in the coming years, with the Asia-Pacific LNG market playing an increasingly important role in the global and regional fuel mix, and that a prosperous, diversified, flexible and integrated LNG trading mechanism will emerge in the Asia-Pacific region. As such, member economies are encouraged to create favorable conditions for trade and investment to support the LNG market in the APEC region, including by relaxing destination clauses.
6. We will vigorously facilitate all-round and in-depth cooperation among APEC member economies in renewable energy and seek to eliminate trade protection and restrictive measures that may impede progress in renewable energy technologies and development of this sector. We will encourage innovation, competition and cooperation to promote a sound and sustainable renewable energy sector in the Asia-Pacific and to ensure its energy security, economic growth, poverty eradication and an appropriate response to climate change.
7. We support full engagement of women in green development, and encourage working with the APEC Policy Partnership on Women and the Economy (PPWE) to integrate gender work on human resource development and capacity building to improve jobs and skills training, analytical and technical capacity, and overall energy literacy to prepare skilled workers in the energy sector. Efforts should be made to participate in APEC Knowledge Sharing Platform work to map future workforce needs, and partner with other relevant APEC fora.
8. We believe improved connectivity in the APEC region will help achieve its goal of energy security. We thus encourage member economies to strengthen infrastructural development, such as oil and natural gas pipelines and transmission networks, LNG terminals, smart grids and distributed energy systems. Efforts should also be intensified to coordinate the management of trans-border oil and gas networks, power grids and other major energy infrastructure to ensure secure and stable operation of relevant facilities.
9. We believe conserving energy and raising energy efficiency will promote socio-economic development in the APEC region and, at the same time, keep its aggregate energy demand at a reasonable level, reduce its reliance on fossil fuel over time, enhance energy independence, and help mitigate global climate change. We reaffirm the aspirational goals set out in the 2011 APEC Leaders’ Declaration to reduce APEC’s aggregate energy intensity by 45% from 2005 levels by 2035. All member economies will work together toward this target.
10. Low-carbon towns can contribute to higher energy efficiency, resource conservation, environmental protection and economic development. We applaud the progress in the APEC Low Carbon Model Town (LCMT) Project and the promotion activities under it. Member economies should exchange ideas, technologies, and experience in developing low-carbon towns and strengthen practical cooperation in this area. At the same time, we agree to continue to both implement the Energy Smart Community Initiative (ESCI) and build the ESCI Knowledge-Sharing Platform to share best practices and enhance capacity building.
11. We encourage member economies to explore energy production and consumption models according to their own circumstances and, in light of the changes in the regional and global energy landscape and the needs of sustainable energy development, reinforce the trends toward low-carbon and clean energy production and consumption. Member economies need to develop renewable energy and pay more attention to the clean and efficient use of fossil fuel, so as to ensure energy is developed, utilized and managed in a rational way.
12. Since fossil fuel will continue to play significant role in the energy mix of this region in the medium to long term, we therefore reaffirm the importance of clean and efficient use of fossil fuel. We encourage member economies, where there are difficulties to quickly deploying alternatives to coal, to enhance cooperation in developing and applying clean coal technologies such as highly efficient coal-fired power plants and Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS).
13. We reaffirm our commitment to APEC Leaders to rationalize and phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption while still providing essential energy services. We acknowledge Peru and New Zealand for undergoing voluntary peer reviews in 2014 of inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that cause wasteful consumption and sharing their best practices.
14. Clean energy supply remains a priority in advancing sustainable development, ensuring energy security and adapting to climate change. We aspire to the goal of “doubling the share of renewables in the APEC energy mix, including in power generation, from 2010 levels by 2030.” To attain this target, member economies will enhance cooperation, promote innovation in renewable energy technologies, so as to reduce costs and improve the competitiveness and sustainability of renewable energy in the energy market.
15. We support the safe and efficient development of nuclear power in interested economies. As a clean, high-quality and advanced modern energy, which functions as a base load power source, we recognize nuclear power’s importance in guaranteeing global energy security and sustainable development as well as in developing diversified energy strategies, meeting energy demand and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. We advocate that interested member economies should exchange experience and best practices, pursue practical cooperation including in improving nuclear safety performance and coordinating emergency response and preparedness mechanisms, and help interested economies to develop nuclear power, under the precondition of commitment to safety, security and nonproliferation.
16. We encourage member economies to increase public outreach on the transformation and upgrading of their energy production and consumption models so as to let the public appreciate and accept green and low-carbon energy; to foster green, energy-saving and efficient models of living and production; and to improve living standards continually.
17. We endorse the establishment of the APEC Sustainable Energy Center (APSEC) in China in 2014 to promote advanced ideas and models of sustainable energy development across the APEC region, and facilitate cooperation among member economies in information exchange, policy dialogue, technology R&D, demonstration and dissemination, and capacity building in the field of sustainable energy.
Instructions of the APEC Energy Ministers
1. We instruct the Energy Working Group (EWG), with the support of its affiliated organizations, the Expert Group on Clean Fossil Energy(EGCFE), the Expert Group on Energy Data & Analysis (EGEDA), the Expert Group on Energy Efficiency and Conservation (EGEEC), the Expert Group on New and Renewable Energy (EGNRET), the Low-carbon Model Town Task Force (LCMT-TF) and the Asia Pacific Energy Research Center (APERC), to continue its research and initiatives that contribute to sustainable development within the region. We instruct the EWG to give strong guidance and support to the newly established APEC Sustainable Energy Center (APSEC). We encourage the APERC and the APSEC to enhance cooperation in an interactive and complementary manner.
2. We instruct the EWG to continue cooperative activities within APEC, with other international and regional organizations, and with the private sector and other stakeholders. Strong engagement and cross fora collaboration is needed to facilitate energy trade and investment, and ensure that energy contributes to the economic, social and environmental enhancement of the APEC community. We encourage the ongoing collaboration between the EWG and relevant APEC fora, such as the Transportation Working Group (TPTWG).
Energy Security3. We encourage the EWG to carry out a study on the security of transportation routes, and propound relative working proposal. 4. We encourage stronger cooperation between member economies to support activities on oil and gas exploration and development, non-conventional oil and gas exploration and development in the APEC region, the establishment of a mechanism to share best practices on non-conventional oil and gas exploration and development, and off-shore oil and gas exploration and development.
5. We encourage APEC member economies to improve capacity building in oil and gas emergency response, including strengthening their own systems such as oil and gas stockpiles and supply chains that suit their own circumstances. We instruct the EWG, including through APERC, to continue cooperation on emergency response, with the International Energy Agency (IEA), ASEAN, the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) and other international organizations. We also encourage member economies to conduct oil and gas security exercises on a voluntary basis, establish an APEC oil and gas security frameworks and do research on oil and gas security, so as to improve the capacity of the APEC region to respond to emergencies such as disruptions in oil and gas supply.
6. We encourage member economies to submit accurate and complete oil and gas data in a timely fashion. We instruct the EWG through EGEDA to collect complete, accurate and timely oil and gas data, implement the Joint Organizations Data Initiative (JODI), and expand the capacity building of some economies in energy data.
7. We instruct the EWG with the support of APERC to strengthen cooperation with existing mechanisms and organizations to carry out specific research on the energy and economic competitiveness of the APEC region, including making in-depth analyses and holding seminars.Energy Investment and Trade
8. We instruct the EWG to work with the APEC Committee on Trade and Investment (CTI) and the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) to identify significant barriers to APEC energy trade and investment and help member economies to improve their capacity in removing those barriers; and to promote best practices and cases on joint clean energy development and investment, improve the transparency and peer participation in policy making processes to ensure open, inclusive and coherent policies related to energy trade and investment in the APEC region. We instruct the EWG to explore the feasibility of establishing a database of energy trade and investment-related projects in the APEC region, so as to promote APEC trans-border energy investment and trade.
9. We instruct the EWG, with the support of its affiliated organizations, to survey APEC connectivity in energy infrastructure, assess its potential, and identify the possibilities and constraints for project cooperation.
10. We instruct the EWG to launch the APEC LNG Trade Facilitation Initiative, to encourage dialogue, exchanges and cooperation, develop public-private partnerships and support market-based LNG pricing mechanism to ensure the interests of LNG suppliers and consumers and boost the healthy development of APEC natural gas markets.
Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Community
11. We instruct the EWG and the EGEEC to continue their cooperation with related organizations on energy efficiency standards such as the International Partnership on Energy Efficiency Cooperation (IPEEC); help member economies to enhance capacity building, make energy efficiency policies more scientific and practical, and speed up the development, promotion and application of energy efficiency technologies and products.
12. We instruct the EWG working through the LCMT-TF to continue the APEC LCMT Project, study the development models, indicator systems, policy tools and technical guidance related to low-carbon towns, draw experiences from different cases, and carry out promotion events for the APEC LCMT; and instruct the EWG through the EGEEC to continue implementing the Energy Smart Community Initiative (ESCI).
13. We instruct the APSEC to accelerate its establishment as an institution and quickly move into operation. We encourage the APSEC to adopt an open, forward-looking perspective, enhance cooperation among member economies, get a deeper understanding of their R&D needs, build information platforms, develop Asia-Pacific intellectual networks, share R&D results and strengthen practical project cooperation. We also encourage it to organize R&D and personnel training on sustainable energy systems, and encourage exchanges, promotion and application of sustainable energy technologies.
14. We instruct the EWG through the EGCFE to promote clean coal technologies, such as Ultra-Supercritical (USC) coal-fired power generation, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Carbon Capture，Utilization and Storage (CCUS) .
15. We reaffirm the UN “Sustainable Energy for All” initiative and instruct the EWG through the EGNRET to develop the road map for the aspirational goal of doubling the share of renewables in the APEC energy mix, including in power generation by 2030; and, to attain this goal, cooperate with IRENA or other organizations to conduct research on the economic benefits and cost-effectiveness of utilizing renewable energy and integrating it into power grids so as to support R&D, innovation and commercialization of clean energy technologies and to promote practical cooperation on renewable technologies, equipment and services among member economies.
16. We encourage member economies with an existing nuclear power industry to share expertise and best practices regarding the development of nuclear power projects and to conduct capacity building and training for the safe and peaceful development and use of nuclear power. We instruct the EWG to cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other related organizations to provide interested member economies with guidance and support to establish a robust infrastructure in the area to enable the safe, secure and efficient deployment of nuclear power.