The primary focus of this research was on the economic impact of COVID-19 on Indigenous Peoples. This research combined a literature review with a questionnaire completed by nine APEC economies. Three main themes emerged from the literature and questionnaire responses, including firstly, the significant and crucial role of kinship, community engagement, and connections to the land, secondly, the importance of inclusive and good quality data and thirdly, the significant impact of the pandemic on the employment and incomes of Indigenous Peoples in 2020. The report shows that understanding the economic impact of COVID-19 will allow economies to identify the unique vulnerabilities of their Indigenous populations and target policy responses to avoid the negative consequences of past economic shocks. As an outcome of the project, this report will help to inform the shape of future collaboration between Indigenous Peoples.