Bogor, Indonesia, 15 Nov 1994
1994 Leaders' Declaration
Bogor Declaration - APEC Economic Leaders' Declaration of Common Resolve
1. We, the economic leaders of APEC, came together at Bogor, Indonesia today to chart the future course of our economic cooperation which will enhance the prospects of an accelerated, balanced and equitable economic growth not only in the Asia-Pacific region, but throughout the world as well.
2. A year ago on Blake Island in Seattle, USA, we recognized that our diverse economies are becoming more interdependent and are moving toward a community of Asia-Pacific economies. We have issued a vision statement in which we pledged:
to find cooperative solutions to the challenges of our rapidly changing regional and global economy;
to support an expanding world economy and an open multilateral trading system;
to continue to reduce barriers to trade and investment to enable goods, services and capital to flow freely among our economies;
to ensure that our people share the benefits of economic growth, improve education and training, link our economies through advances in telecommunications and transportation, and use our resources sustainably.
3. We set our vision for the community of Asia-Pacific economies based on a recognition of the growing interdependence of our economically diverse region, which comprises developed, newly industrializing and developing economies. The Asia-Pacific industrialized economies will provide opportunities for developing economies to increase further their economic growth and their level of development. At the same time developing economies will strive to maintain high growth rates with the aim of attaining the level of prosperity now enjoyed by the newly industrializing economies. The approach will be coherent and comprehensive, embracing the three pillars of sustainable growth, equitable development and national stability. The narrowing gap in the stages of development among the Asia-Pacific economies will benefit all members and promote the attainment of Asia-Pacific economic progress as a whole.
4. As we approach the twenty-first century, APEC needs to reinforce economic cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region on the basis on equal partnership, shared responsibility, mutual respect, common interest, and common benefit, with the objective of APEC leading the way in:
strengthening the open multilateral trading system;
enhancing trade and investment liberalization in the Asia-Pacific; and
intensifying Asia-Pacific development cooperation.
5. As the foundation of our market-driven economic growth has been the open multilateral trading system, it is fitting that APEC builds on the momentum generated by the outcome of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations and takes the lead in strengthening the open multilateral trading system.
We are pleased to note the significant contribution APEC made in bringing about a successful conclusion of the Uruguay Round. We agree to carry out our Uruguay Round commitments fully and without delay and call on all participants in the Uruguay Round to do the same.
To strengthen the open multilateral trading system we decide to accelerate the implementation of our Uruguay Round commitments and to undertake work aimed at deepening and broadening the outcome of the Uruguay Round. We also commit ourselves to our continuing process of unilateral trade and investment liberalization. As evidence of our commitment to the open multilateral trading system we further agree to a standstill under which we will endeavor to refrain from using measures which would have the effect of increasing levels of protection.
We call for the successful launching of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Full and active participation in and support of the WTO by all APEC economies is key to our ability to lead the way in strengthening the multilateral trading system. We call on all non-APEC members of the WTO to work together with APEC economies toward further multilateral liberalization.
6. With respect to our objective of enhancing trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific, we agree to adopt the long-term goal of free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific. This goal will be pursued promptly by further reducing barriers to trade and investment and by promoting the free flow of goods, services and capital among our economies. We will achieve this goal in a GATT-consistent manner and believe our actions will be a powerful impetus for further liberalization at the multilateral level to which we remain fully committed.
We further agree to announce our commitment to complete the achievement of our goal of free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific no later than the year 2020. The pace of implementation will take into account differing levels of economic development among APEC economies, with the industrialized economies achieving the goal of free and open trade and investment no later than the year 2010 and developing economies no later than the year 2020.
We wish to emphasize our strong opposition to the creation of an inward-looking trading bloc that would divert from the pursuit of global free trade. We are determined to pursue free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific in a manner that will encourage and strengthen trade and investment liberalization in the world as a whole. Thus, the outcome of trade and investment liberalization in the Asia-Pacific will not only be the actual reduction of barriers among APEC economies but also between APEC economies and non-APEC economies. In this respect we will give particular attention to our trade with non-APEC developing countries to ensure that they will also benefit from our trade and investment liberalization, in conformity with GATT/WTO provisions.
7. To complement and support this substantial process of liberalization, we decide to expand and accelerate APEC'S trade and investment facilitation programs. This will promote further the flow of goods, services, and capital among APEC economies by eliminating administrative and other impediments to trade and investment.
We emphasize the importance of trade facilitation because trade liberalization efforts alone are insufficient to generate trade expansion. Efforts at facilitating trade are important if the benefits of trade are to be truly enjoyed by both business and consumers. Trade facilitation has also a pertinent role in furthering our goal of achieving the fullest liberalization within the global context.
In particular we ask our ministers and officials to submit proposals on APEC arrangements on customs, standards, investment principles and administrative barriers to market access.
To facilitate regional investment flows and to strengthen APEC's dialogue on economic policy issues, we agree to continue the valuable consultations on economic growth strategies, regional capital flows and other macro-economic issues.
8. Our objective to intensify development cooperation among the community of Asia-Pacific economies will enable us to develop more effectively the human and natural resources of the Asia-Pacific region so as to attain sustainable growth and equitable development of APEC economies, while reducing economic disparities among them, and improving the economic and social well-being of our people. Such efforts will also facilitate the growth of trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region.
Cooperative programs in this area cover expanded human resource development (such as education and training and especially improving management and technical skills), the development of APEC study centers, cooperation in science and technology (including technology transfer), measures aimed at promoting small and medium scale enterprises and steps to improve economic infrastructure, such as energy, transportation, information, telecommunications and tourism, with the aim of contributing to sustainable development.
Economic growth and development of the Asia-Pacific region has mainly been market-driven, based on the growing interlinkages between our business sectors in the region to support Asia-Pacific economic cooperation. Recognizing the role of the business sector in economic development, we agree to integrate the business sector in our programs and to create an ongoing mechanism for that purpose.
9. In order to facilitate and accelerate our cooperation, we agree that APEC economies that are ready to initiate and implement a cooperative arrangement may proceed to do so while those that are not yet ready to participate may join at a later date.
Trade and other economic disputes among APEC economies have negative implications for the implementation of agreed cooperative arrangements as well as for the spirit of cooperating. To assist in resolving such disputes and in avoiding its recurrence, we agree to examine the possibility of a voluntary consultative dispute mediation service, to supplement the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, which should continue to be the primary channel for resolving disputes.
10. Our goal is an ambitious one. But we are determined to demonstrate APEC's leadership in fostering further global trade and investment liberalization. Our goal entails a multiple year effort. We will start our concerted liberalization process form the very date of this statement.
We direct our ministers and officials to immediately begin preparing detailed proposals for implementing our present decisions. The proposals are to be submitted soon to the APEC economic leaders for their consideration and subsequent decisions. Such proposals should also address all impediments to achieving our goal. We ask ministers and officials to give serious consideration in their deliberations to the important recommendations contained in the reports of the Eminent Persons Group and the Pacific Business Forum.
11. We express our appreciation for the important and thoughtful recommendations contained in the reports of the Eminent Persons Groups and the Pacific Business Forum. The reports will be used as valuable points of reference in formulating policies in the cooperative framework of the community of Asia-Pacific economies. We agree to ask the two groups to continue with their activities to provide the APEC economic leaders with assessments of the progress of APEC and further recommendations for stepping up our cooperation.
We also ask the Eminent Persons Group and the Pacific Business Forum to review the interrelationships between APEC and the existing sub-regional arrangements (AFTA, ANZERTA and NAFTA) and to examine possible options to prevent obstacles to each other and to promote consistency in their relations.
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