In 2015, APEC Transportation Ministers met in Cebu and agreed on a set of measures to strengthen cooperation in such areas as inclusive mobility; enhancing transportation safety and security, investing in resilient infrastructure; promoting green technology; harmonizing vehicle standards; studying disruptive technology and evolving regulations; using intelligent transport systems to improve transportation efficiency and effectiveness; promoting connectivity; capacity building, etc.
The 43rd meeting of TPTWG was hosted by Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur in September 2016. A wide range of ongoing and proposed projects and initiatives was discussed.
Overview of current projects in implementation
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code Implementation Assistance Program
The project aims to assist APEC economies to develop the capacity required to effectively implement the ISPS Code by imparting a transfer of knowledge, lessons learned, and best practices. The project is carried out by holding the “Self-Assessment Trainer Workshops” and “Advanced Drill and Exercise Workshops” targeting government officials and port managers responsible for ISPS Code implementation.
Promotion of Regional Economic Integration by Developing APEC Gateway Port Connectivity
The study to develop policy and strategy recommendations for promoting Gateway Ports Connectivity in the APEC region, which refers to connections between regional seaports, and between seaports and their hinterland area. The study will clearly define what a Gateway Port is, identify the current state of Gateway Port Connectivity in the APEC region, and review best practices around the world. Key focus areas are port connectivity development trends, intermodal connections to hinterland areas, and connectivity performance indicators. A workshop will be held to solicit input, share best practices and recommend policy and strategy to promote Gateway Port Connectivity. All research findings and recommendations will be documented and shared widely among APEC economies and public and private port stakeholders.
Attracting Private Investment to Transportation Infrastructure Public-Private Partnerships
Budget constraint, innovations in the field of project finance, and growing interest for long-term financial returns by investors are increasing economies’ interest in PPPs. The skillset required of all government agencies involved in transportation infrastructure PPPs includes the ability to understand how to create project opportunities that are attractive to private investors while creating value for the government sponsor. Therefore, the project aims to share global best practices with government staff who package transportation infrastructure PPP deals for bidding out to private investors, project developers, and design/build firms.
Global Supply Chain Resilience: Phase 3 Continued Implementation
The project continues the focus on the APEC Seven Principles of Supply Chain Resilience Action Plan through two workshops targeting transportation, emergency management officials, and the private sector.
Enhancing Aviation Connectivity and Emissions Reduction via Implementation of Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) Assistance Program
The project aims to assist APEC economies in implementation of Performance Based Navigation (PBN), which is an aviation modernization program required by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). When fully implemented, PBN facilitates shorter flight routes with significant fuel and emissions savings. PBN also improves safety and reduces delays; this will help reduce the time, cost, and uncertainty of air freight and passenger movement throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
Promoting Cruise Visits to Ports within APEC Region
The objective of the project is to promote human exchange and economic revitalization in an environment-friendly manner by encouraging visits of cruising vessels to ports within the regions of APEC in collaboration with the International Association of Ports and Harbors.
The number of cruising passengers has doubled worldwide in the past 10 years. While the number of cruising passengers accounts for slightly less than 1% of the population in Europe, it accounts for slightly less than 4% in the US. As it accounts for only approx. 0.06% of the population in the Asia-Pacific region, it is expected to achieve a significant increase in future.
For the ports at which the cruising vessels of the member states of APEC make or expected to make calls, the sharing of the port-related information (the information on port facilities and tourism resources) and the visit of cruising vessels to member economies are jointly promoted through international workshop, training course and research in this project.
Framework of Heavy Vehicle Safety in Transport Supply Chain for APEC Developing Economies
The project aims to develop a framework of practical measures to address issues relating to overloading and load balancing of heavy vehicles in select APEC economies, in particular in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam.
An APEC study in 2011 estimated that 420,000 deaths were caused by heavy vehicle accidents, with contributing factors including: human/business factors; vehicle overloading and load balancing; poor vehicle road worthiness; infrastructure deficiencies; and inadequate legislation and regulation.
The project was endorsed by the 42th APEC Transportation Working Group meeting in Papua New Guinea in April 2016. A workshop is planned for the first half of 2017 to develop a regulatory framework toolkit to enable developing economies to implement measures to reduce the impact of high-mass vehicles on road safety, transport sector productivity and road infrastructure depreciation.
These measures will include regulatory, educational, and technology-based solutions to achieve improved compliance with vehicle mass limits, safety regulations, and road use requirements.
The TPTWG has successfully implemented a significant number of projects including:
Transport, Energy and Environmental Benefits of Intermodal Freight Strategies (2010)
The project assessed the energy, transport, and environmental benefits of intermodal freight strategies to assist APEC economies in shifting from energy-intensive transport modes like trucks to energy-economising modes like rail, barges and ships. The project conducted comparative case studies of benefits from developed and developing economies, with particular findings on capacity building in intermodal transport for developing economies which are planning major infrastructure expansion. This project benefited energy consumers and stakeholders in the logistics supply chain trade in all APEC economies. By building understanding of how intermodal freight strategies can reduce the time and fuel required for freight shipments from one place to another, the project encouraged wider application of such strategies, as well as investment in rail and port facilities to facilitate the transfer of freight from trucks to other modes. Through an outreach seminar, the project helped build capacity in developed and developing APEC economies to put such strategies in place.
Security Monitoring Model and Network for Regional Supply Chain with a particular focus on food security (2010)
Based on the industry’s requirements for a higher security level of regional supply chains, this project assessed the feasibility to establish a network among APEC economies to monitor supply chain security for transport of containers, with a particular focus on food containers. Through conducting an environmental scan of regulatory requirements and practices of monitoring food supply chain security among the APEC economies and a case study for monitoring food supply chain security between China and Canada, the project developed feasible recommendations for establishing a region-wide monitoring network for food supply chain security among APEC economies.
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code Implementation Assistance Program (ICIAP) (2012)
This project further advanced previous projects to support the on-going activities of MEG-SEC’s International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code Implementation Assistance Program (ICIAP) which aims to assist APEC Economies develop the capacity required to effectively implement the ISPS Code by imparting a transfer of knowledge, lessons learned, and best practices related to the implementation of the ISPS Code by subject matter experts located within APEC Economies. The Self-Assessment Trainer Workshop (SATW) and Port Security Risk Assessment (PSRAT) workshops have been demonstrated to improve the capacity of APEC Economies in implementing the ISPS Code utilizing specific project outputs and methodology tailored specifically to APEC economies with a focus on developing economies by targeting government and port managers who are in a position to directly implement the results of the PSRAT and SATW Workshops.
International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code Port Security Visit Program (PSVP) (2010)
This project supported the on-going activities of the Maritime Security Sub-Group’s International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code Implementation Assistance Program (ICIAP). The ICIAP assists APEC economies develop the capacity required to effectively implement the ISPS Code. The project assisted member economies in identifying their strengths and weaknesses in implementing the port security requirements specified in the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code. Regional experts from APEC economies visited ports on a project basis to assist with transfer of knowledge, lessons learned and best practices.
The Last-Mile of Supply Chain – Third Party Logistics Forum and Technical Visits (2011)
More efficient and environment-friendly logistics system enhances physical connectivity “across the border," and while a 10% efficiency gain in supply-chain connectivity would lift APEC's real GDP by US$21 billion per year and generate thousands of jobs. Therefore, gaining experiences and solving problems within local Third-Party Logistics (3PL) service providers facilitates a seamless flow of goods, services, and people throughout the Asia-Pacific. The project helped address problems within local 3PL service providers such as lack of efficiency as well as lack of infrastructure. The project, along with technical visits, provided opportunities for member economies to understand how to formulate best practices within their economies, and the technical visits provided in-depth understanding about how third-party logistics companies can transform from traditional shipping businesses to a more diversified and customized operation model to help strengthen the service efficiency and elevate performance in the last mile of global supply chain system.
Sharing Best Practices for Seamless Intermodal Cargo Movement
The project aimed at increasing the productivity of supply chains through the improvement of intermodal infrastructure connectivity. It specifically addressed Chokepoint 2 under the APEC Supply Chain Connectivity framework and its Action Plan in relation to inefficient or inadequate transport infrastructure and lack of cross-border physical linkages, and also Chokepoint 6 - underdeveloped multimodal transport capabilities; inefficient air, land, and multimodal connectivity. Phase 1 of the project focused on identification of best practices in physical infrastructure development and intermodal connectivity in APEC region.
Study to Develop a Green Port Evaluation Index (2011)
This project helped develop a Green Port Evaluation Index to contribute to sustainable port development and construction. This index is an innovative approach to balancing environmental challenges with economic demands. It also provides clear and systematic guidance for Green Port programs in the APEC region, particularly for developing Member Economies. The project considered indexes in six key areas: environment, ecology, resource, energy, socio-economy, and complex ecosystem. Main activities of this project included: investigating best practices of Green Port Programmes in the world, particularly in the APEC region; identifying main attributes and indexes of Green Port; evaluating each index, and developing the evaluation mode in consultation with officials, experts, practitioners, and all the other stakeholders.